Cervical screening test the Pap Smear test, known in medicine as the Pap Smear test, is a test named by the Greek doctor George Papanicolaou and used to screen for cervical cancers. It plays an important role in screening for cervical cancer or differences before cancer. Precancerous cells are located on the surface of the cervix. This screening test can be taken from here and examined. Successful results have been recorded in diagnosing cervical cancer and reducing deaths from the disease using a Pap Smear test.
The Cervical Screening Test aims to notice early some signs that are not cancer in the cervix (cervix) but are at risk of turning into cancer after many years if they are not noticed. In this way, these early signs can be treated and eliminated without turning into cancer. In other words, the main goal of doing this test is not to identify people who have started cervical cancer but to determine the findings years before cancer begins.
In women who do not have a Pap Smear test, these findings are not noticeable and can turn into cancer after many years. Specialist doctors often recommend having a cervical screening test every three years for women between the ages of 21 and 65. For women 30 and older, a cervical screening test can be performed every five years when the procedure is combined with an HPV test, or they may consider an HPV test instead of a smear test.
Tampons, vaginal creams, or medications should not be used and sexual intercourse should not be performed within 24 hours before the test. At the same time, the vagina should not be washed. The reason for this is that the results are lost and the test gives the wrong result. If there is a Genital infection or discharge, a smear should be taken after treatment.
A cervical Screening Test is an extremely easy, short-term, and painless test. Because it is an application that does not damage the tissue, the pain does not feel pain. The duration of the test is as short as 15-20 seconds and can be performed during a routine gynecological examination. During the examination, the cervix (cervix) is displayed after the speculum is inserted into the vagina.
A sample of fluid is taken from the cervix by evaluating lesions that may be visible to the naked eye in the vagina and cervix and swabbing with a soft brush or spatula. This sample is placed in a special thin glass called lam and placed in a container full of alcohol to make the results on the glass surface and a spray with a freezing property is squeezed on it. After this process, called fixation, the sample is sent to the pathology department and taken under examination. After that, it takes 2 to 8 days for the results to come out.
Pap testing is usually the first step in determining Cervical Health and is usually performed as part of routine screening. Most women are advised to have a PAP test starting at age 21. Depending on your age and risk, your doctor may also recommend an October test for HPV infection. A cervical screening test plays an important role in determining the risk of uterine cancer.
A doctor manually examines the vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries for tubers that can be explored in more detail with imaging technology.
A doctor uses a special microscope called a colposcope to examine the cervix. This microscope is designed to provide an enlarged view of areas and allows your doctor to see any abnormal tissue. If abnormal tissue is detected, a tissue biopsy is performed.
There are two types of biopsies used to diagnose cervical cancer. These:
When Pap test and colposcopy results show cervical carcinoma, your doctor may perform a cone biopsy to confirm the symptom. The doctor removes a piece of tissue from the cervix with the help of a scalpel. The tissue is then sent to a pathologist for examination.
This test involves examining the sentinel lymph nodes where cancer cells are most likely to spread from a primary tumor. It can help determine whether cancer has spread beyond.