Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine (hormonal) disease that develops due to the disruption of the interactions between the nervous system, pituitary gland, ovaries, adrenal gland and other tissues. It is common in women of reproductive age, causes menstrual irregularity, decreases the chance of pregnancy. It is a chronic disease and, if not treated at an early stage, adversely affects the hearts, blood vessels and physical appearance of women.
Polycystic Ovary is known as the most common hormonal disorder in reproductive age. US and according to the results obtained in studies performed in Turkey affects 10-15 of every 100 women.
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome usually begins in adolescence; because it develops due to the malfunctioning of the hormonal system activated in adolescence. With the increase in obesity, the incidence of this disease also increases. Because the excessive secretion of insulin hormone affects the ovaries and hormonal system negatively and prepares the ground for the development of the syndrome.
Two ovaries in the female body develop a mature egg suitable for fertilization in one menstrual period. This egg completes its development and maturation in a fluid-filled sac called "Follicle". In Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, many eggs try to mature at the same time, but they cannot achieve this. After all, there are many eggs, but none of them can develop and become fertile. In the ultrasound examination, the ovaries are seen as many sacs with undeveloped eggs, namely many cysts.
The disease usually gives symptoms such as menstrual irregularity, acne, oily skin, increased hair growth, infertility, and weight gain. Polycystic ovary occurs for the first time in adolescence with the onset of menstrual bleeding. In this period, menstrual irregularities are the most important stimulus and are seen in almost 75% of people. The most common irregularity is infrequent menstruation. From time to time, there may be no periods called amenorrhea. The bleeding seen after the delay is usually excessive and prolonged. This irregularity is a sign of a malfunction in ovulation.
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome is a chronic condition. For this reason, it is necessary to learn about this disease and to adopt a suitable lifestyle. Not all women with Polycystic Ovarian Problems show the same symptoms. However, the diet of women with polycystic ovary problem should be adjusted first and should be encouraged to do sports. Although not every patient with the syndrome is the same, the beginning of the treatment process of each patient is to be at a healthy weight, to exercise, to lower the insulin level, not to smoke, to not use alcohol.
The most important factors are healthy eating, sports and weight control. Weight loss in patients with insulin resistance alleviates the symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome. For example, controlling blood sugar and insulin levels with diet and exercise in patients with acne, hair growth and high androgen values accelerates the recovery of these symptoms. Sports and healthy eating are especially important as they will reduce the risk of developing diabetes in the future due to polycystic ovary syndrome.
Menstrual Irregularity Treatment; When the treatment that restores ovulation is applied in patients who are thinking of pregnancy, menstruation is also in order. Birth control pill is the most preferred drug for patients younger than 35 years old and do not want children. The second is progesterone drugs used 15 days after menstruation.
Infertility Treatment; Inability to ovulate in the polycystic ovary problem also reveals the problem of infertility. The first-line drugs that provide ovulation in patients are oral drugs. It provides egg development and ovulation in the month it is used. However, it should be used every month. When there is no response to treatment with oral medications, two different ways are tried. One of them is hormone therapy that provides ovulation with a needle; The other one is the surgical intervention laparoscopic diathermy (LOD) performed to provide ovulation by a surgical method called laparoscopic.
Masculine Hair Treatment; In patients with polycystic ovary problem, hard and masculine hair growth, male pattern baldness and acne acne may occur due to the testosterone hormone. Birth control pills can be used to prevent hair growth. These drugs reduce the androgen hormone in the blood and prevent new hair growth. It is important to use it regularly for 6 months to achieve a successful treatment with the birth control pill. This is due to slow hair growth. Treatment with medication does not destroy the hairs that are formed before the drug, the treatment of the hair growing is epilation.
Changes in the growth rate of your hair or the development of acne may be possible for your doctor to determine that you have high levels of androgens such as testosterone. Otherwise, blood tests can detect high androgen levels. A blood test can also be used to check the level of prolactin, a hormone produced in the brain's pituitary gland. Very high prolactin levels can be caused by a pituitary gland tumor, and this problem can lead to symptoms similar to polycystic ovary syndrome.
As long as your symptoms are excluded from other causes, your doctor will diagnose polycystic ovary syndrome if a blood test shows high testosterone levels and your menstrual periods are infrequent. Testosterone cannot be clearly tested if you are currently on birth control pills. Your doctor will test for other hormone levels that may be associated with high testosterone or cause similar symptoms to be sure of your diagnosis.
Your doctor may choose to look at your ovaries using ultrasound, especially if your ovaries are enlarged during your pelvic exam. It's possible for an ultrasound test to show multiple cysts in the ovary. Some women have all of the specific hormone abnormalities with this condition, but no cysts have developed in their ovaries. The diagnosis and treatment of these women is the same.
Because of the risk of diabetes and heart disease with this condition, regular testing of your blood sugar and cholesterol is essential. People with polycystic ovary syndrome should have a blood glucose test at regular intervals.