Colposcopy and examination of the tissues of the cervix vagina and vulva with the help of a special magnifying glass similar to microscopy or binoculars are performed in this device colposcope. This illuminated and computerized device used in the examination enlarges the image of the cervix. In this way, it provides better examination and visibility of the cervix. By colposcopic examination, pathologies too small to be monitored with the naked eye (changes in cell and vascular structure) are detected and the findings recorded in later treatments are used. During the procedure, some dyes and substances are applied to the cervix to make the suspicious areas more visible and to determine the areas where a biopsy should be performed.
Since colposcopy is a painless and painless procedure, patients do not need to be put to sleep with general anesthesia.
During colposcopy, the speculum is used to see the vagina and cervix, as in a normal gynecological examination. The cervix and vagina are observed with a colposcope. The area that will be evaluated as the basis of the examination is the area where the cell layer that forms the outer part of the cervix and the cell layer that forms the channel that extends into the uterus merge. This area is called the squamocolumnar compound or transformation zone. Cervical cancer begins in this area. This region should be fully evaluated. Failure to fully evaluate is considered insufficient colposcopy.
One of the important points during colposcopy is the observation of vascularization in the cervix. This assessment is performed using green light in the colposcope device after cleaning the cervix with saline solution. A biopsy should be taken from areas where irregular vasculature is monitored.
For further evaluation, acetic acid is applied to the cervix between 3% and 5%. decoction of acetic acid is applied to the cervix. The number of acetic acid applications may vary depending on the length of the processing time. Although this procedure can cause a slight burn, it is not a painful procedure. If there are areas that contain abnormal cells at the time of application, they turn white. These regions are called the Aceto-white region. A biopsy should be taken from these regions. A biopsy can also be taken from ulcerated lesions in the examination area.
Sometimes the examination is continued with a solution called Lugol solution. (Schiller test) areas not stained with Lugol solution are abnormal areas and require biopsy.